Drought

Drought  Declaration in Effect 

USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA) offers disaster assistance and low-interest loan programs to assist farmers experiencing drought. Available programs and loans include:

  • Non-insurable Crop Assistance Program (NAP) - provides financial assistance to producers of non-insurable crops when low yields, loss of inventory, or prevented planting occur due to natural disasters including qualifying drought.
  • Livestock Forage Program (LFP) - provides compensation to eligible livestock producers who suffered grazing losses for covered livestock due to drought.
  • Tree Assistance Program (TAP) - provides financial assistance to eligible trees, bushes, and vines lost due to a qualifying natural disaster. 
  • Emergency Livestock Assistance Program (ELAP) - provides emergency relief for losses due to feed or water shortages, disease, adverse weather, or other conditions, which are not adequately addressed by other disaster programs.
  • Emergency Loan Program - available to producers with agriculture operations located in a county under a primary or contiguous Secretarial Disaster designation. The low interest loans help producers recover from production and physical losses. 
  • Emergency Conservation Program (ECP) - provides cost share, up to 75% of the producer's actual costs, to provide emergency water during periods of sever drought (specifically for grazing and confined livestock and existing orchards and vineyards). Approved practices and measures my include:
    • installing pipelines or other facilities for livestock water or existing irrigation systems for orchards and vineyards
    • constructing and deepening wells for livestock water
    • developing springs or seeps for livestock water.

Producers experiencing drought related losses should contact their local FSA Office. A list of local offices can be accessed here

Additional information on these programs can be obtained by visiting fsa.usda.gov/disaster.

Other programs available:

  • Small Business Administration Economic Injury Disaster Loans program.
  • Maine State Housing Authority - Home Repair Program - Note: Applicants are encouraged to apply but will be waitlisted until funds are made available. Funds may be appropriated at any point in time. This program provides help to low-income homeowners who cannot afford necessary home repairs in the form of a grant and can assist with such things as well repairs or replacements.
  • USDA Rural Development: Single Family Housing Loans and Grants - Note: Applicants will be waitlisted until funds are congressionally appropriated for the next fiscal year. This program provides loans to very-low-income homeowners to repair, improve or modernize their homes or grants to elderly very-low-income homeowners to remove health and safety hazards.

Experiencing a dry well? Take the Dry Well Survey!

Citizens who may be experiencing low water levels in wells are also encouraged to take the following steps:

  • Avoid filling wells by a water hauler or fire department. This could contaminate the owner's well because water from an unknown source may contain toxins and water would likely leak out in a short amount of time. 
  • Check water systems for leaks and fix them. This can also save money for those on public water.
  • Ensure you have a full load before running dishwashers and washing machines.
  • Space out water usage to avoid a temporary shortage that could damage the pump.
  • If using drinking water from an outside source, make sure containers and the water source are clean.
  • Use a licensed well driller or pump installer to check water levels in wells for the most accurate assessment and advice and to avoid contamination.

A drought is a prolonged period without rain, specifically a twelve month period during which precipitation is less than 85% of normal as defines by the National Weather Service; 44 inches is the average precipitation level per year in Maine.

Although Maine is considered a “wet” state, drought conditions can occur about every decade. During late summer to early fall, these conditions can also lead to a very high forest fire threat. Go to the Wildfires section to learn more about fire threats and occurrences in Maine.

Drought is the number one risk factor for the State’s agricultural economy, as it is the basis of over 1.2 billion dollars of food and fiber products annually. It employs 22,000 workers across the state, preserves a lifestyle for over 5,500 Maine families and provides stewardship of over 1.5 million acre of land and wildlife habitat. Since approximately 45% of the state’s population relies on dug or shallow wells, a prolonged drought period increases the risk of dry wells also. About 55% of the population relies on the public water system, which can also be affected.

Since Maine is 90% forested, drought years tend to affect the whole state. Some of the most severe droughts happened in the late 1940s, mid-1960s and more recently during the 2001-2003 period. The U.S. Geological Survey has identified the following drought periods in Maine:

  • 1938-43
  • 1947-50
  • 1955-57
  • 1963-69
  • 1984-88
  • 2000-2003

The Palmer Drought Index is used for activating the Drought Emergency Plan. The Drought Severity Index (Palmer 1965) was developed to measure the departure of the moisture supply at specific locations. The objective of the Palmer Drought Index is to provide measurements of moisture conditions that were standardized so that comparisons using the index could be made between locations and between months. For additional information on drought see the National Integrated Drought Information System webpage.

Notable Droughts in Maine

  • 2000-2003: According to a recent study by the Department and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Maine farmers lost over $32 million dollars because of the drought, causing to be the most damaging drought to date. Aroostook and Washington Counties were the hardest hit.

Mitigation

Early identification of drought threats is important in order to educate the public in conservation measures and minimize damage. The Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry and the Department of Environmental Protection have programs, regulations, policies, and educational materials to assist in minimizing this hazard.