Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)
On this page:
- Status of HPAI in Maine
- HPAI Confirmation Snapshot
- What Maine is Doing
- HPAI in Maine FAQs
- Additional HPAI Resources
- Sharable Social Media Images
Last updated: November 22
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a highly contagious virus that can be spread in various ways from flock to flock, including through wild birds, contact with infected poultry, equipment, and on the clothing and shoes of caretakers. Starting in February 2022, DACF reported detecting 14 cases of the disease in domestic birds, all involving non-commercial backyard flocks. Animal Health officials remind Maine’s commercial and backyard flock owners to keep birds indoors to prevent the spread of HPAI.
Receive DACF updates and alerts regarding the status of avian influenza in Maine by opting into the Avian Influenza email list.
|County||Date of Confirmation||Flock Type||Number of Birds|
|Cumberland||6/29/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||20|
|Waldo||4/5/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||50|
|Lincoln||3/30/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||3|
|Knox||3/29/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||40|
|Washington||3/26/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||20|
|Cumberland||3/22/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (poultry)||250|
|York||3/19/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||70|
|Knox||3/19/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||20|
|Lincoln||3/17/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||30|
|York||3/14/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||180|
|Lincoln||3/12/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||100|
|Knox||2/23/2022||Backyard Pet Chickens (non-poultry)||100|
|Washington||11/21/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||90|
|Hancock||1/27/2023||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||40|
|Knox||2/19/2022||Backyard Mixed Species (non-poultry)||30|
DACF Animal Health placed the properties under quarantine, and humane depopulation efforts have been completed.
Additional safety measures were implemented, including monitoring properties with domestic flocks within a 10 km radius and notifying bird owners of the importance of proactive safety measures to help prevent disease.
DACF Animal Health officials report that the risk for HPAI remains high in Maine, and backyard flock and commercial owners are advised to keep birds indoors to prevent the spread of this disease.
The current outbreak of HPAI is spreading across the country primarily due to the migration of wild birds. There is little evidence to suggest HPAI is being spread from farm to farm (lateral transmission). The virus is very prevalent in the environment in wild birds so flock owners need to practice strong biosecurity. More information on steps they can take to enhance biosecurity is available here: http://healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov.
HPAI is spread directly through wild bird droppings and indirectly through feed, water sources, and bedding that may have been exposed to the droppings.
Examples include chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, ducks, geese, and guinea fowl.
Nonpoutry means meat and eggs from known infected flocks were not destined for the food chain.
As long as the disease transmission risk is high.
Because HPAI is being spread by migrating wild birds, it is difficult to predict what will happen over the next couple months. The trends observed with past North American HPAI outbreaks are that we often see a reprieve in the summer months. Summer is when the virus present on the landscape (outdoors) is degraded by sunlight and heat. Migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and shorebirds) moving south in the fall months are likely to shed AI virus again. It is critically important that poultry owners work now to provide indoor shelter for their birds through the fall and provide outdoor access only in covered poultry runs, allowing protection from predators and preventing contact with wild waterfowl and their droppings.
It's always recommended to only purchase birds from a reputable source that follows effective biosecurity protocols and closely monitors poultry health. NPIP Certified hatcheries monitor their breeder flocks for important chronic diseases, and are a recommended source for new poultry. In light of the nation-wide outbreak of Avian Influenza, it is more important than ever to follow cleaning and sanitation steps and only purchase birds with known health histories. You can find more detailed guidance from the USDA Defend the Flock Checklist for Adding or Replacing Poultry.
Sudden death without clinical signs; Lack of energy and appetite; Decreased egg production or soft-shelled or misshapen eggs; Swelling of the head, comb, eyelid, wattles, and hocks; Purple discoloration of wattles, comb, and legs; Nasal discharge, coughing, and sneezing; Incoordination; or Diarrhea. Learn more.
The best approach is to practice good biosecurity – this means keeping your birds separate from sources of disease, such as infected wild birds and their environment.
What should I do if I have sick birds or large mortality in my flock or discover a sick or dead wild bird? +
Report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through your state veterinarian or through USDA's toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593.
No cases of this particular strain of the avian influenza virus have been detected in humans in the United States. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, recent detections of this strain of influenza in birds in Maine and several other states present a low risk to the public.
No, poultry and eggs are safe to eat when handled and cooked properly. Eggs from a known infected flock are safely disposed of.
Yes. Refer to the USDA APHIS website (PDF) to learn what is covered and how the process works.
According to the USDA, all bird owners, whether commercial producers or backyard enthusiasts, should:
- Practice protective security measures to help prevent disease
- Prevent contact between their birds and wild birds, and
- Report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through your state veterinarian or through USDA's toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593.
For backyard and commercial poultry producers:
- USDA has many resources available for commercial poultry producers and backyard bird owners through its Defend the Flock campaign.
- Information about this campaign and links to toolkits containing biosecurity checklists, videos, and more, are available.
- Additional information and resources about HPAI and foreign animal disease preparedness are available.
DACF's Animal Health team is also working closely with the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC). Though this strain of avian influenza has not been detected in humans in the United States, Maine CDC is monitoring the health and wellbeing of Animal Health staff and flock owners who were exposed out of an abundance of caution. Signs and symptoms of bird flu infections in people can include fever (temperature of 100F or greater) or feeling feverish, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, fatigue, headaches, eye redness (or conjunctivitis), and difficulty breathing. Other possible symptoms are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. As with seasonal flu, some people are at high risk of getting very sick from bird flu infections, including pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and people 65 and older. The U.S. CDC provides information on avian flu transmission (PDF). The Maine CDC's Health and Environmental Testing Laboratory is prepared to process samples and quickly provide results for anyone potentially exposed to the virus.
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Contact: Jim Britt, DACF Director of Communications, (207) 480-0558, email@example.com